Hidden Markov Model

This HMM was implemented by slightly modifying the source code written by Meyers and Whitson (1995). Their C++ code implements a left-right hidden Markov model and the corresponding Baum-Welch maximum likelihood training algorithm using the algorithms described by Rabiner (1989). I translated this code from the Solaris C++ environment to a Macintosh CodeWarrior ANSI C environment, in the process combining Meyers and Whitson's separate driver programs for training and testing into a single program, and modifying the input format for sequences to handle the BCOW and WEIS sequences. The .zip version of the files is for the benefit of those using Windows or UNIX: the program code is in ASCII text files.

1997 Version

This is the code used for the estimates published in Philip A. Schrodt, "Early Warning of Conflict in Southern Lebanon using Hidden Markov Models." pp. 131-162 in Harvey Starr, ed. The Understanding and Management of Global Violence: New Approaches to Theory and Research on Protracted Conflict. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Hidden Markov model source code and data files (.sit)
Hidden Markov model source code and data files (.zip)

2000 Version

This is the code used for the estimates in Philip A. Schrodt, Forecasting Conflict in the Balkans using Hidden Markov Models (Paper presented at the American Political Science Association meetings, 31 August - 3 September, 2000). This version extends the Meyers and Whitson implementation to handle the left-right-left (LRL) model, and implemented the Viterbi algorithm described in Rabiner (1989) in order to estimate the most likely state sequence. In the process of extending the model to the LRL form, I rewrote the estimation equations to correspond exactly to those in Rabiner -- the Meyers & Whitson implementation differed slightly from Rabiner's equations, presumably because their models estimate a separate vector for "transition symbols."

In addition to these extensions of the estimation methods, this code is considerably more elaborate and contains options for a variety of different forecasting schemes, a genetic algorithm for finding optimal starting points for the estimation, and a parallel-computer implementation using the MPI protocol. The compressed files include a 16-page "User's Guide" in MS-Word format, a program for converting event data to the sequences used by the program, and formatted sample sequences for the Balkans and Liberia. The code has been run under both the CodeWarrior for the Macintosh (OS 8.5) and the cc compiler in the IRIX 6.5 OS (a Unix variant) on a SGI Origin 2000 parallel computer

Hidden Markov model source code and data files (.sit)
Hidden Markov model source code and data files (.zip)

KEDS Coding Software and Dictionaries

The KEDS (Kansas Event Data System) program was our first major foray into the automation of events data. The KEDS program runs natively on Mac OS 6.0 or later—up until the point when Apple discontinued support for the PowerPC-based systems—and uses a limited amount of disk space. KEDS supports a nifty GUI interface that we eventually decided not to implement in TABARI.

KEDS version 0.9B7.2 (Macintosh program).

The program uses 2Mb of memory and requires System 6.0 or any later system that supports the PowerPC.
Last update: 5 April 1999
Download KEDS program

Click here to see a summary of changes since version 0.9B6.3

KEDS manual

200 pages, MS Word format. In addition to documenting all of the features of the program, the manual contains a discussion of the use of event data in international relations research.
Last update: 22 February 1998

Link to Adobe .pdf version of the manual

Link to .dvi version of the manual

Actor and verb phrase dictionaries for coding the Middle East.

Last update: 2 August 1996.
(also see updated data sets below)
Download dictionaries

Sample folder:

A sample data set of 22 hypothetical events which follow typical Reuters syntax and vocabulary.
Last update: 2 August 1996
Download sample

Introduction to KEDS and the Sample folder.

Last update: 2 August 1996
Download Introduction